If you have these planted in your garden or are using any of them to decorate the inside of your home, be especially careful and be sure your dog isn't able to ingest them. This plant causes vomiting, drooling, and swelling in tongue, upper airway, and lips. The white, milky sap of the plant, referred to as latex, contains the strongest amount of toxicity, but any part of the plant can cause irritation. issues, respiratory problems), Rose periwinkle (dog poison plant in larger quantity), Rue (Can cause skin allergy, vomiting and nausea), Saddle Leaf Philodendron - (mouth swelling, breathing ), Daffodil (vomiting and diarrhea - can be fatal, especially But, do you know that those pleasant shrubs may not be pretty for your poochs health? eye irritation if touches the eyes and possibly skin irritation), Poison hemlock (varied dog toxic effects on the nervous And it helps if you can identify poisonous plants growing in the garden. You still shouldnt allow your dog to eat lots of petals or leaves, however, as they could cause a stomach upset. The symptoms include lethargy, low blood pressure, skin rashes, and loss of appetite. This makes them a popular choice for pet-safe gardens. It is imperative that your veterinarian is aware of any use of St. Johns wort due to its tendency to increase the bodys response to certain medications such as antidepressants and sedatives, as well as its propensity to decrease the effectiveness of other medicines. When creating a doggy-safe garden, taking the time to identify the plant species is important. In addition to the toxic pits, cherry flesh can make their stomach upset. Reports say that 93 percent of Americans do not even know what kind of plants they have in their homes. A fee of $60 may be charged to your credit card. Eating a small quantity of rose petals or foliage isnt likely to cause major issues for your pup. But, do you know that pollen from plants also causes allergies in pooch? Most true ferns are considered non-toxic to dogs, according to the ASPCA. gastrointestinal upset), Rhododendron (this dog poison plant results in vomiting, cause vomiting, pain in abdomen, tremors, heart ), Mock orange (vomiting, painful abdomen, diarrhea), Monkey Pod (vomiting, painful abdomen, diarrhea), Monkshood (causes stomach upset and nervous behavior. Give the dog 1 teaspoon (5ml) per 10 pounds of body weight (4.5kg). The ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center is available 24 hours a day all year long for poison-related situations. Water regularly. Usually found indoors as an ornamental plant, but sometimes outdoor in the summer, the Asparagus Fern can make your pet feel uncomfortable if exposed through touch or if ingested. So, its no harm in growing these pretty plants, but you have to take care of your dogs health by not letting it nibble on those plants. It is a common household plant that can even lead your pooch to death. Taste of Home is America's #1 cooking magazine. . anorexia), Mother-in-Law ((mouth swelling, breathing problems, Names: Clematis in the Greek, Klematis, refers to climbing plants. They will also thrive in coastal areas as long as they are not on the front line. Funnel-shaped pure pink flowers with deeper-colored throats bloom in the summer through fall. and leaves, these dog are consumed), Spider Mum (vomiting, pain in abdomen, tremors, heart Lilly of the Valley (Convallaria majalis) is a popular holiday plant that is toxic to dogs and requires aggressive treatment. diarrhea), Calla Lily (mouth swelling, breathing problems, If you suspect your pet may have ingested a potentially toxic substance, call the APCC at (888) 426-4435 or contact your local veterinarian as soon as possible. Symptoms of poisoning include dehydration, fever, slow heartbeat, tremors and death is also possible. in larger quantities, low blood pressure, tremors, cardia arrhythmia), Bead Tree (diarrhea, vomting, salivation, weakness, Can also result in bloody diarrhea, convulsions and coma), Alocasia (oral irritation, burning in the mouth, mouth Of course, plants arent the only worrisome things in your home. and nausea), Red-Margined Dracaena (also called Straight-Margined 2) . Its best to purchase rose bushes from reputable nurseries. The symptoms of toxicity from the rose of Sharon shrub are very similar to poisonings by other plants. C. virginiana is not known to be particularly hazardous but care should be taken in handling it. Your next step is to immediately call a veterinarian or emergency care hospital for advice. However, because of the large number of word-of-mouth information transfers, Jessamine is sometimes pronounced as Jasmine, and the rest is history. Periwinkle. If your dog eats part of a plant, and if you aren't sure if it is a dog poisonous plant, look inside the dog's mouth and see if you notice any soars forming or excessive drooling. She has worked for the Scottish Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, ran her own specialist dog shop for ten years, has volunteered for her local rescue shelter, and is studying towards completing an Advanced Diploma in Canine Behaviour. The plant is irritating to the skin and poisonous when eaten. This small palm is often kept as a houseplant, making it more likely that your dog's curiosity will get the best of him. Avoid excess water during winter months. You can also call your vet or the emergency vet as well. If you can't immediately reach a vet call the ASPCA poison control center. Pandorea jasminoides, the bower of beauty, bower vine or bower plant, is a species of woody climbing vine in the family Bignoniaceae, native to the forests of eastern Australia. irritation and a lowered heart rate, lower blood pressure, irritable Even if you do not garden but have plants around, not only do you have to be sure that your pup won't dig up those plants, but you also must be knowledgeable about plants safe for dogs and. skin reaction or allergy), Lillies (Lilum - harmful if large amount is consumed), Lily of the Valley (Convallaria majalis, excessive gastrointestinal upset), Boxwood (twigs, leaves are poisonous to dogs, can cause Among the more common plants toxic to dogs, symptoms that you might notice include digestive upset, excessive drooling, loss of appetite, diarrhea, colic, depression, weakness, loss of coordination, stupor, leg paralysis and weak heart rate. Unfortunately, all parts of the azalea plant are poisonous to dogs, including the flower, leaves, seeds and even honey thats made from the nectar. And are rose bushes potentially toxic to your pet? kidney failure and liver damage. weakness), Flannel flower (if large amounts are eaten), Foxglove: Garden and wild flower with poisonous leaves and The Dog Health Guide is not intended to replace the advice of a Veterinarian or other Health Professional. Treatment consists of activated charcoal, IV-fluid administration and ongoing symptomatic support. If your dogs skin or eyes has become irritated by the plant, a bath and/or flushing the eyes with water is recommended. Very Your pup will get oral irritation, diarrhea, vomiting, seizures and heart abnormalities if it eats this plant. Find The Facts About Coronavirus In Dogs And Preventive Measures. These chemicals can cause mild to moderate effects such as skin irritation, redness, swelling, vomiting, diarrhea, loss of appetite, abdominal pain and drooling in your pooch. It is poisonous to dogs as toxins present in this plant cause diarrhea, vomiting, depression, abdominal pain, anorexia, hypersalivation, and tremors. But, it causes excess drooling, vomiting and burning sensation and swelling in the tongue and mouth. gastrointestinal upset), Calamondin Orange (vomiting, diarrhea, depression, possible If consumed, an immediate visit to your vet is recommended to monitor and treat symptoms. Be aware that some toxic plants are easily confused with roses. The miniature Cinderella Rose, and the Kathleen Harrop, for example, are two spike-free varieties. For example, the skin of the fruit, the leaves or stems can often be dangerous, says Dr. Zacharias. gastrointestinal upset), Paspalum (toxic seeds, can cause skin irritation), Pasque flower (toxic in larger quantities), Peace Lily (Mauna Loa Peace Lily) - (mouth swelling, allergy in dogs), Mistletoe "American"(common family of dog poisonous plants Heres why your dog has bad breath, and how to get rid of it. Oleander, known for its white or pink flowers and height that provides privacy between yards, is another poisonous plant for dogs. It is found in Australia, Malesia and the southwestern Pacific region. Poisonous plants have always been part of daily life. Many plants that produce edible fruitincluding grapefruit, oranges, lemons and plumsare toxic if the actual plant portion is ingested. gastrointestinal upset, hallucinations), Japanese Plum (vomiting, painful abdomen, diarrhea), Japanese Spindle (dog poisonous plants when eaten in larger gastrointestinal upset), English Holly (vomiting, painful abdomen, diarrhea), English Ivy (berries and leaves are poisonous to dogs, Position Pandorea in full sun to part shade in a moist, well-draining clay loam or sandy soil. skin allergy), Philodendron Pertusum (contains insoluble calcium oxalate Home Home & Living Outdoor Living Gardening. You do need to worry about what rose care products you're applying and rose thorns, though. Symptoms of poisoning include: This plant should not be confused with St. Johns wort (Hypericum perforatum), which is occasionally referred to as rose of Sharon. Any plant in the allium family, if ingested in large enough quantities, can cause a severe reaction in the bloodstream called hemolysis, in which red blood cells are destroyed in large numbers, says Dr. Long. Clematis, Virgin's bower, traveller's joy, leather flower. It forms large pointed pods filled with papery seeds. The unknown toxin in the rose of Sharon plant appears to be most active in cats, dogs, and horses. The Advice in This Article Only Applies to True Roses, Rose Plants Are Not Healthy for Dogs to Eat, Be Aware of Dangerous Pesticides and Chemicals, pesticides marketed specifically for roses. This plant and its delicate white flowers are highly toxic to dogs and can result in vomiting, irregular heartbeat, reduced blood pressure, confusion and disorientation, says the ASPCA. Heres the list of top 10 poisonous plants to your canines. ), Pineapple broom (poisonous to dogs in larger quantities), Poinsettia (Mildly toxic to dogs. So, keep an eye an on your dog not to nibble on the leaves. A pretty plant, it is fatal to your dog as it contains the harmful toxin called glycoside. As our dogs tend to explore the world . skin irritation), Privet (toxic leaves, can cause vomiting, painful abdomen, Can results in excessive salivation, vomiting and difficulty No! Treatment for the consumption of the rose of Sharon can usually be handled at home with comparative ease, however it is imperative to contact your veterinarian before starting any sort of therapy both to determine if either the response to the toxin or the amount eaten necessitates a visit to their office, as well as to get specific instructions for your dogs circumstances. breathing problems, gastrointestinal upset), Peach (leaves and pits are toxic, pit contains cyanide - sudden death. Yew is an evergreen shrub typically found outdoors. Do not use unless recommended by a veterinarian. can result in dog skin allergies), Elephants Ear (mouth swelling, breathing problems, Iris: Ingesting any part of. When you buy products via links on our site, we may earn an affiliate commission at no cost to you. It means the soil should be highly organic, made by using potting mix and medium of orchids. 7. 123 Huntington Street. A fee of $60 may be charged to your credit card. Early symptoms of sago palm poisoning include vomiting, diarrhea, and seizures. irritation, skin irritation), Cherry (seeds contain the dog poison cyanide and can cause Box 1106. swallowing. We have categorized the toxic household plants based on the severity of their effects on your dog. It does NOT contain every possible variety. Foxglove. Veterinary reviewed by: Dr. Linda Simon, MVB MRCVS. these summer foods you shouldnt give your dog, household items are also hazardous for your pets, Heres how to pet-proof your home the easy way, how to tell if your dog has food poisoning, Heres why your dog has bad breath, and how to get rid of it, These are the secret health benefits of owning a dog, this is why dogs are afraid of vacuum cleaners, These are the best dog-friendly restaurants across America, Do not Sell or Share My Personal Information. A list of the more common household plants that are toxic to dogs: autumn crocus azaleas black locust bleeding heart buttercups castor bean cherries (wild and cultivated) daffodil daphne Dieffenbachia (dumb cane) elderberry elephant ear foxgolve golden chain Hyacinth jack in the pulpit jasmine jimson weed (thorn apple) Lantana camara (red sage) You might have decorated your home with plenty of greenish and vibrant houseplants. It is poisonous to dogs as toxins present in this plant cause diarrhea, vomiting, depression, abdominal pain, anorexia, hypersalivation, and tremors. 'Rosea' has pink flowers with deeper pink throats. Here is a list of common plants in Australia plants toxic to dogs. Sometimes, your dog loves the plant taste and becomes sick. The dog may become comatose and die. If youve purchased a plant without knowing what its been treated with, keep your dog away for at least a few weeks. Every inch of this plant is poisonous to dogsfrom the flower petals to the pointy, long leaves. Avoid excess water during winter months. As any part (seeds, leaves, etc.) All rights reserved. If you think that your pet may have ingested a potentially poisonous substance, make the call that can make all the difference:(888) 426-4435. are a great addition to home gardens because not only do they look beautiful, but they also pair well with other flowers.If you own a dog and are worried that rose bushes may be toxic to dogs, don't worry; the petals and leaves are nontoxic to dogs. Ingesting a couple of rose leaves or petals probably wont harm your dog. It is a popular garden plant, common cultivars include the yellow-flowered P. Golden Showers, the white-flowered P. Snowbells, and the pinkish P. Ruby Belle. Yes, lilies are poisonous to dogs. But, it is a poisonous vine because of having a natural steroid sapogenin and polyacetylene compounds. They come in many varieties, including lily of the valley, calla lily, peace lily, palm lily, and Dracaena lily, which are all known to be toxic to our furry friends. Each has a small charge that can be billed to a credit card. . This type of plants is called succulent and it appears fleshy or swollen. gastrointestinal upset), Nicotiana: Another garden flower with toxic leaves. blood, anorexia, hypersalivation, depression), Balsam pear (vomiting, painful abdomen, diarrhea), Barbados Aloe (can change urine color to red, vomiting), Barbados Lily (vomiting, salvation, diarrhea, convulsions (vomiting and diarrhea), Fruit Salad Plant (diarrhea, oral irritation, skin Plants Poisonous to Dogs with Mild Effects While many plants can result in mild toxicity, these are some of the most common: Ivy, poinsettia, tansy, nettle, wisteria (seeds/pods), and iris can all result in mild to severe digestive upset. Worried about the cost of Rose Of Sharon Poisoning treatment? Bower vine does best in a well-draining, fertile soil in full sunlight, though the vine will tolerate light, shifting shade. respiratory problems), Prickly poppy (toxic in larger quantities), Primrose (leaves are toxic, has an upset stomach, may cause Fertilize during growing season. Common name(s): bower plant, bower vine Family: Bignoniaceae Plant type: vine USDA hardiness zones: 9B through 11 (Fig. If your pet has ingested a plant and is exhibiting strange behaviors or symptoms, contact your vet immediately, or call the Pet Poison Helpline at 855-764-7661. gastrointestinal upset), Malanga (mouth swelling, breathing problems, Richins present in plant causes respiratory distress and pulmonary edema in your pooch. gastrointestinal upset - can cause death), Dutchman' breeches (toxicity varies by dog), Dumb Cane (diarrhea, mouth irritation, tremors, balance Lily of the valley is a beloved indoor and outdoor plant, but if youre a pet parent, its best to not introduce it to your home or garden. Image: stokpro / iStock.com. Yes, they are harmful to your pets, but not all. A Visit To The Vet Is An Investment In Your Pets Health. that have toxic roots, berries and seeds - (vomiting and diarrhea), Poppy (dog hallucinogen in larger quantities), Potato (green skins and sprouts - always cook for dogs), Pothos (Scindapsus, Epipremnum) - (mouth swelling, As not all the plants you grow are harmful to your pooch, you must know the ones that are toxic to your lovely dog. what is jail like in ontario; kentucky probate laws no will; 12. These are the cleaning tips all pet owners should know. (60-90 cm) Hardiness: USDA Zone 9a: to -6.6 C (20 F) USDA Zone 9b: to -3.8 C (25 F) USDA Zone 10a: to -1.1 C (30 F) USDA Zone 10b: to 1.7 C (35 F) Where to Grow: Grow outdoors year-round in hardiness zone Can be grown as an annual Danger: Unknown - Tell us Bloom Color: Pink Red White/Near White Plants can be poisonous to your lovable pets, although they look pretty. St. Johns wort is often used to safely and naturally alleviate anxiety when given in appropriate doses, as determined by your veterinarian. Bower vine is an easy plant to care for. While roses are non-toxic to dogs, it doesnt mean theyre completely without risk. Symptoms can appear several days after ingesting these dog Get the help from the people and make your dog ready for their arrival. digestives issues), Deadly nightshade (hypersalivation, lack of appetite, in quantities that are large), Chrysanthemum (toxic leaves, stem and causes skin reaction, poisonous plant to dogs and can cause death), Onion (Never ever feed dogs onions or products that contain In addition to fruit plants, there are many other common foods that can be toxic to dogs, as well. Its leaves look like grass and can range from pale to emerald green. Oleander. light, oils are toxic to dogs), Parlor Ivy (mouth swelling, breathing problems, Yes, Virgin's Bower is toxic to dogs! It is also a common cut flower or houseplant. If your dog has ingested any part of this plant, says Dr. Long, its imperative to head to the nearest veterinarian immediately so that vomiting can be induced. trembling, sweating, coordination and breathing problems, depression In April last year, a dog belonged to Tampa in Florida went to the edge of death after it consumed a few seeds of a sago palm. A vine succulent, it upsets your dogs stomach and makes the pup to vomit, to have diarrhea if the pooch eats the leaves of this succulent. If you are uncertain of the source of your dogs distress, it is important to contact your veterinarian as soon as possible. Even small abrasions can create corneal ulcers that can become serious without treatment. Warning: POISONOUS PARTS: All parts. Telephone: (203) 974-8601 Fax: (203) 974-8502. It is not a common source of dog poisoning and not all parts of every plant are a problem. cause shock, panting, trouble breathing, dilated pupils, red mucous While some plants may only cause digestive upset in your dog, there are others that are extremely toxic and can cause serious health problems. irritation), Neththyis (mouth swelling, breathing problems, This includes various types of plants, both indoors and outdoors, that can cause poisoning in dogs. The leaves/foliage is more toxic than berries. The evergreen yucca plant, which blooms in the summertime, contains steroidal saponins that can lead to weakness, drooling, and vomiting in dogs. Some plants are there for your dogs! But, this popular vine can cause mild effects such as vomiting, nausea, and diarrhea. But, it causes a severe burning situation in the mouth and leads to vomiting, diarrhea, seizures, heart arrhythmias and damage to liver and kidney. A wide range of common flowers and plants can be risky for your dog, and some are highly toxic. gastrointestinal tract problems, Common symptoms are vomiting, swelling of the mouth and/or throat, severe oral pain, pawing at mouth or eyes, severe skin irritation, agitation, coughing, gagging and hypersalivation. Simply coming into contact with the plant can cause symptoms, as well. onions, can cause anemia), Orange (vomiting, diarrhea, depression, sensitivity to The leaves of this vine are considered to have the toxins. No! central nervous system), Water hemlock (varied dog toxic effects, causes convulsions Supportive therapy with drugs designed to control gastrointestinal signs, as well as reverse liver and heart issues, is key to survival. If you have a suddenly lethargic dog, these are 5 signs you need to call the vet. 2. Also, your dog can easily access them, but get only mild to moderate health issues. The sap causes flammula (Sweet-scented Virgins Bower) are poisonous as they contain an alkaloid, Clematine, which is a violent poison. As with any non-edible plant, however, consuming too much could result in an upset stomach. drooling, nausea, diarrhea, decreased heart rate, cardiac arrhythmia, seizures, depression, fruit most toxic part of plant), Begonia (tubers are toxic, can cause oral irritation, Animals who are particularly sensitive to the compounds in the plant, or who ingest unusually large quantities of the rose of Sharon may experience extreme nausea and vomiting. Always check that there are no poisonous plants in your garden. vomiting, diarrhea, hypersalivation), Clematis (dog poisonous plants that result in during the Christmas holiday - has toxic berries, causes problems in If your pets symptoms warrant a visit to the veterinary clinic, a urinalysis, biochemistry profile, and complete blood count will also be ordered at that time to uncover any toxins or chemical imbalances that may be present. The first symptom is frequent vomiting and diarrhea in your pooch. By the way, this is why dogs are afraid of vacuum cleaners. The entire plant is harmful to dogs. 5) Peach Tree, Prunus persica, Rose family, Almond \ Plum sub-family. Daffodil. irritation), Ivy (plant is toxic when consumed in larger quantity), Jack in the pulpit (mouth swelling, breathing problems, But, these plants can be toxic to your dogs. For best results grow Pandorea jasminoides Rosea Superba in moist but well-drained soil or compost, in a sunny sheltered position. It is a frost tender evergreen hardy in USDA zones 9 to 11. Although most dogs will avoid eating dangerous plants, others will be more curious, especially young dogs or puppies. The reason is that syrup of ipecac is stronger and less effective. Its important to contact your veterinarian right away if you think your dog has ingested any portion of a snake plant. They also make your dog to drool much and cause vomiting as well. So, you dont need to dig up your beautiful bush or ban all bouquets that contain cuttings of this popular plant. This plant is poisonous, hence dangerous to gophers when chewed on. Heart arrhythmias will also occur in rare cases. Just watch out for those spiky thorns. After this incident, vets from Blue Pearl Veterinary Partners showed warning signs of the garden dangers. These plants grow on the organics of other dead plants. sensitivity), Lobelia (toxic in large quantities, may cause a skin Fertilize during growing season. If you suspect your canine has eaten any part of this plant, immediately go to your veterinarian or emergency veterinary center. 8. Once it is known that the dog ingested these poisonous leaves, rapid transfer to a veterinary hospital where vomiting can be induced is key. The below-mentioned plants are considered non-toxic and safe for your canines. IV fluid therapy will be administered at the doctors office to prevent dehydration, and over the counter medications designed for humans, such as Imodium or Pepcid AC, may also be recommended for their gastroprotective properties.These drugs should never be administered to your canine without consulting a veterinary professional first, as the dosage amounts for humans and canines can be very different. longfield-gardens. ). In conclusion, Clusia Rosea is toxic to cats and dogs, and it is essential to keep the plant out of your pets' reach. Unfortunately, they are also poisonous plants for dogs and can cause nausea, vomiting and diarrhea if consumed, says the ASPCA. Wendy Rose Gould is a freelance lifestyle reporter based in Phoenix, Arizona. Of course! Amaryllis This traditional Easter flower is poisonous to dogs. This plant is popular at the time of Easter. fields 1. The bower vine (Pandorea jasminoides) is an Australian native that goes by several other names, including bower climber, bower of beauty, and just plain Pandorea. Disulfoton, for example, is a common compound used in pesticides marketed specifically for roses. Unfortunately, there are several plants that look similar to roses but are actually toxic to dogs. Vinca (Catharanthus roseus) is considered by the ASPCA as a toxic plant to dogs and their puppies. If consumed by your dog, the sago palm causes severe vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal pain, as well as stumbling, tremors, seizures and temperature-regulation issues, warns Christie Long, DVM, head of veterinary medicine at Modern Animal. INTRODUCTION. Besides, the poison in this plant will cause swelling in the throat and tongue. Profuse vomiting and diarrhea can lead to dangerous levels of dehydration. While the leaves may have some toxins in them, the fruit of the plant is considered the most toxic part. Does only the sago plant cause danger to a dog? Dumbcane ( Dieffenbachia) Hemlock ( Conium maculatum) English Ivy, both leaves and berries ( Hedera helix) Mistletoe ( Viscum album) Attempting to treat eye injuries at home without consulting an expert could increase the risk of permanent damage. If you suspect your dog has trodden on a rose bush stem, check they havent damaged their paw. In the following AnimalWised article, we will talk about the most common poisonous plants for dogs. This beautiful vine plant that flowers in the morning may be irresistible to humansand also to dogs, who might be tempted to chomp on them when they open. Although the overall outcome of poisonings by the rose of Sharon plant is generally good, other dangerous poisons can cause the same symptoms, so it is important to accurately identify the plant that your pet has sampled. Put in plants that are non-toxic for dogs. is a plant that dogs like to chew), Schefflera (Brassaia actinophylla - plant toxic to dogs in When ingested, this plant can cause drooling, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and death. parts of teh plant contain the toxic alkaloid taxines. Touching some plant saps, stems, or leaves may cause a skin rash. Vinca is evergreen and low-lying and gradually spreads, so needs to be kept under control. 10 common plants toxic to dogs and cats Sources: Paula Parker, David Neck and Nicole O'Kane. C. virginiana is not known to be particularly hazardous but care should be taken in handling it. You can also call the 24-hour Pet Poison Helpline at 1-888-426-4435. To help your dog with recovery after the emergency has passed (finish emergency care first), consider a natural supplement to cleanse the body and support the liver. 5. Yes, your dog will get skin allergies because of the pollens in a few plants. It is actually a very tough plant and is rarely bothered by pests and diseases. 1. It is a frost tender evergreen hardy in USDA zones 9-11. While we do our best to provide accurate information to help readers improve their relationship with their dogs, the information on this website is not meant as a substitute for veterinary advice. Is the jasmine plant poisonous to dogs? Be aware of toxic risks. With 15 years of experience in the pet industry, she is a passionate animal welfare advocate. But, the bulb is more poisonous and causes nausea, excess drooling and oral irritation in dogs. Google Plant Images: click here! Circumstances that may prompt a visit include vomiting that doesnt cease after 12 to 24 hours, blood in the vomit, and signs of dehydration.