Data, 1989, 34, 332-335. Phys. Expert Answer. Monatsh. Dokl. Technology, Office of Data Hence the specific heat of benzene = 1716.475 J/kg.C. Contact us at 1. Solution Chem., 1987, 16, 745-752. J. ; Simonov, V.M. rend., 1933, 197, 519-520. ; Smith, N.K., Curiously, a similar, humorous depiction of benzene had appeared in 1886 in a pamphlet entitled Berichte der Durstigen Chemischen Gesellschaft (Journal of the Thirsty Chemical Society), a parody of the Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, only the parody had monkeys seizing each other in a circle, rather than snakes as in Kekul's anecdote. ; Daniels, F., Mitt. Am. Chem., 1965, 96, 669-678. The heat capacities of benzene, methyl alcohol and glycerol at very low temperatures, Uber binare flussige Mischungen I. Mischungswarment, Volumseffekte und Zustandsdiagramme von chlorex mit benzol und n-alkylbenzolen, The formula for specific heat capacity, C, of a substance with mass m, is C = Q / (m T). DH - Eugene S. Domalski and Elizabeth D. Hearing, Go To: Top, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, Notes, Roux, Temprado, et al., 2008 ; Nagano, Y., . [all data], Wilhelm, Faradjzadeh, et al., 1982 The proportionality constant c is sometimes referred to as the specific heat capacity or (incorrectly) the heat capacity. ber das Verdampfungsgleichgewicht Benzol-1-2-Dichloraethan, Step-by-Step Verified Solution Basis: 1 mol Feed [44][45] Using large crystals of hexamethylbenzene, a benzene derivative with the same core of six carbon atoms, Lonsdale obtained diffraction patterns. Some of our calculators and applications let you save application data to your local computer. In liquid form,benzeneis clear, colorless and Phosgene. [all data], Willams and Daniels, 1924 Specific target organ toxicity - single exposure (narcotic effects) - Category 3 - Narcotic effect. ; Blanchard, E.R. Aspiration hazard - Category 1 The signal word is danger. The solvent-properties of the two are similar, but toluene is less toxic and has a wider liquid range. Toluene hydrodealkylation converts toluene to benzene. The word "benzene" derives from "gum benzoin" (benzoin resin), an aromatic resin known since ancient times in Southeast Asia; and later to European pharmacists and perfumers in the 16th century via trade routes. Good, W.D. been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. Benzene is sufficiently nucleophilic that it undergoes substitution by acylium ions and alkyl carbocations to give substituted derivatives. ; Wilhelm, E.; Hamedi, M.H., J. Benzene should NOT be used at all unless no safer alternatives are available. Z. Phys. Combustible Gas Leak LEL Natural Gas Detector Methane Benzene Propane Alarm. Please read Google Privacy & Terms for more information about how you can control adserving and the information collected. The . Benzene is a liquid at standard conditions. Keep away from heat and sources of ignition. Claus, Adolph K.L. ; Khan, V.H., Maleic anhydride is widely used in resins, coating, pharmaceuticals, surfactants, agricultural products, and plastics. Rajagopal, E.; Subrahmanyam, S.V., Am. Each question paper and mark scheme will also comply with these . It is highly recommended to seek the Material Safety Datasheet (MSDS) for this chemical from a reliable source such as SIRI, and follow its directions. [all data], Dejardin, 1919 Czarnota, I., [106], The Nazis used benzene administered via injection as one of their many methods for killing. Wilhelm, E.; Faradjzadeh, A.; Grolier, J.-P.E., Data, 1969, 14, 102-106. [102], Inhaled benzene is primarily expelled unchanged through exhalation. Vys. This was seven years after he had solved the problem of how carbon atoms could bond to up to four other atoms at the same time. J. Phys. ; Udovenko, W.W., Willams, J.W. Contact China Manufactory Wuhan Kaimubuke Pharmaceutical Technology Co., Ltd for the product BERYLLIUM CHLORIDE. Soc., 1925, 47, 1490-1503. [all data], Grolier, Roux-Desgranges, et al., 1987 Short Commun. [all data], Aoyama and Kanda, 1935 Zaved. Vapors may travel to source of ignition and flash back. 2039504. Today, most benzene comes from the petrochemical industry, with only a small fraction being produced from coal. Complete decarboxylation of mellitic acid gives benzene. 1. Chlorination is achieved with chlorine to give chlorobenzene in the presence of a Lewis acid catalyst such as aluminium tri-chloride. [all data], Subrahmanyam and Khan, 1969 Benzene CCOHS. Thermodynam., 1982, 14, 523-529. Int. . Zhdanov, A.K., Pyrolysis gasoline can be blended with other hydrocarbons as a gasoline additive, or routed through an extraction process to recover BTX aromatics (benzene, toluene and xylenes). The heat capacities and heat of crystallization of some isomeric aromatic compounds, [all data], Ferguson and Miller, 1933 The affected batches were removed from sale. Nauk, 1962, SSSR 142, 1335-1338. 10, 1967, No.1, 79-82. Carbon dioxide (CO2). Ann. Reproductive toxicity Suspected of damaging fertility or the unborn child. J. Phys. (TLV) for benzene to 0.02 ppm and reduce the 15 . [78] IARC rated benzene as "known to be carcinogenic to humans" (Group 1). Williams, J.W. [76] There is no safe exposure level; even tiny amounts can cause harm. Chem. [64], Four chemical processes contribute to industrial benzene production: catalytic reforming, toluene hydrodealkylation, toluene disproportionation, and steam cracking etc. Consist of disordered clusters of particles that are quite close together; particles have random motions in three dimensions Solids 1. Long-term exposure to excessive levels of benzene in the air causes leukemia, a potentially fatal cancer of the blood-forming organs. (The density of benzene is 0.80 g/mL, its specific heat capacity is 1.74 J/g K, and its heat of fusion is 127 J/g.) The molecule is planar. [all data], Prosen, Johnson, et al., 1946 [42] If the anecdote is the memory of a real event, circumstances mentioned in the story suggest that it must have happened early in 1862. Although of no commercial significance, many other routes to benzene exist. Specific Hazards Arising from the Chemical Flammable. Monatsh. What is the formula for specific heat? Please read AddThis Privacy for more information. Sci. "Zur Kenntnis der ungesttigen Verbindungen,", "Untersuchungen ber aromatische Verbindungen (Investigations of aromatic compounds)", "The Structure of the Benzene Ring in Hexamethylbenzene", "An X-Ray Analysis of the Structure of Hexachlorobenzene, Using the Fourier Method", "Meet Kathleen Lonsdale, the physicist and prison reformer who cracked benzene's code", "Faits pour servir la dtermination du lieu chimique dans la srie aromatique", "Untersuchungen ber die Constitution der zweifach-substituirten Benzole", "Life on Mars? Organic Chemistry - Specific Name Reactions. Obshch. by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. [88] The purpose of establishing an IDLH value is (1) to ensure that the worker can escape from a given contaminated environment in the event of failure of the respiratory protection equipment and (2) is considered a maximum level above which only a highly reliable breathing apparatus providing maximum worker protection is permitted. The U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set a permissible exposure limit of 1 part of benzene per million parts of air (1 ppm) in the workplace during an 8-hour workday, 40-hour workweek. [all data], Tanaka, 1982 Andrews, D.H.; Lynn, G.; Johnston, J., Bull. Specific heat of sulphuric acid= 1.40 . In heterocycles, carbon atoms in the benzene ring are replaced with other elements. Benzene is an excellent ligand in the organometallic chemistry of low-valent metals. Using a precise scanning-microcalorimetric technique, the heat-capacity difference between water and an aqueous solution of benzene or of toluene has been measured for a broad temperature range (from 278 to 413 K) under excess pressure, and the partial specific heat capacity of these solutes has been determined. Ahlberg, J.E. 9.11 Ratio of Specific Heats of Vapor (Gas): 1.061 9.12 Latent Heat of Vaporization: 169 Btu/lb = 94.1 cal/g = 3.94 X 105 J/kg Trans. The handling of this chemical may incur notable safety precautions. [all data], Wilhelm, Grolier, et al., 1977 specific heat liquid = 1.740 J/g C A 27.00 g sample of liquid benzene is initially at 41.30 C. : Dynamic viscosity (Pas). National Center for Biotechnology Information. Excess thermodynamic functions of the systems: benzene + p-xylene and benzene + p-dioxan, ; Wilhelm, E.; Grolier, J.-P.E., Staveley, L.A.K. Eng. ; Johnson, W.H. Soc., 1924, 46, 903-917. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. Bull. [all data], Hyder Khan and Subrahmanyam, 1971 Sci. ), pp. Physik [3], 1881, 13, 447-464. Compt. Grolier, J.-P.E. Heats of combustion and formation at 25C of the alkylbenzenes through C10H14, and of the higher normal monoalkylbenzenes, [all data], Maass and Walbauer, 1925 Rept. The specific heats of five organic liquids from their adiabatic temperature-pressure coefficients, (This estimate assumes no threshold for benzene's carcinogenic effects.) A typical reaction yield exceeds 95%. Rabinovich, I.B. [all data], Recko, 1968 Thermophys., 1981, 2(2), 155-162. Benzeneis present in crude oils and is a product of oil-refining processes. Thermal and volumetric properties of chloroform + benzene mixtures and the ideal associated solution model of complex formation, 1 C) = 30.7 k // mol melting point = 5.5 0 C A H tin (5.50 C) = 9.95 kV / mol specific heat liguid = 1.741/ 0 C At a pressure of 1 atm, what is AH in kJ for the process of condensing a 31.3 a sample of gaseous benzene at . Excess heat capacities for mixture of benzene with n-heptane at 293.15, 298.15 and 303.15 K, The thermal analysis clearly ensures the enhancement in case of benzene added water upward spray, and the achieved average heat flux is 1.78 MW m 2. It found that four contained benzene levels above World Health Organization limits. In particular, acute myeloid leukemia or acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (AML & ANLL) is caused by benzene. Thermodynam., 1988, 20, 1183-1189. NQ01 and GSH shift metabolism away from toxicity. BENZENE BNZ CAUTIONARY RESPONSE INFORMATION Common Synonyms Watery liquid Colorless Gasoline-like odor Floats on water. [51], Trace amounts of benzene are found in petroleum and coal. France, 1929, 45, 36-49. Soc., 1948, 70, 1502-1505. ; Roux-Desgranges, G.; Kooner, Z.S. Using electrophilic aromatic substitution, many functional groups are introduced onto the benzene framework. In the body, benzene is enzymatically converted to a series of oxidation products including muconic acid, phenylmercapturic acid, phenol, catechol, hydroquinone and 1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene. J. Chem. FOIA. NQ01 metabolizes benzoquinone toward polyphenols (counteracting the effect of MPO). 1 lists the specific heats for various materials. [all data], Pacor, 1967 Thermodynam., 1982, 14, 259-268. Alkyne trimerisation of acetylene gives benzene. [all data], Richards and Wallace, 1932 MSDS for benzene is available at AMOCO. Am. The empirical formula for benzene was long known, but its highly polyunsaturated structure, with just one hydrogen atom for each carbon atom, was challenging to determine. ; Daniels, F., Soc., 1932, 54, 2705-2713. A method for the determination of the specific heats of liquids, and a determination of the specific heats of aniline and benzene over the approximate range 20C to 50C, Temp., 1983, 21(2), 270-275. ; Extrapolation below 90 K, 47.49 J/mol*K.; p = 0.1 MPa. [81], Exposure to benzene may lead progressively to aplastic anemia, leukaemia, and multiple myeloma. This reaction is called Sandmeyer reaction. Storage class Storage class (TRGS 510): 3: Flammable liquids 7.3 Specific end use(s) Apart from the uses mentioned in section 1.2 no other specific uses are stipulated SECTION 8: Exposure controls/personal protection American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) adopted Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) for benzene at 0.5 ppm TWA and 2.5 ppm STEL. reddens or appears damaged, call for medical aid. of Health and Human Services: TR-289: Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Benzene, NLM Hazardous Substances Databank Benzene,, potential occupational carcinogen, flammable. Most people in developed countries have measureable baseline levels of benzene and other aromatic petroleum hydrocarbons in their blood. Given that demand for para-xylene (p-xylene) substantially exceeds demand for other xylene isomers, a refinement of the TDP process called Selective TDP (STDP) may be used. In 1988 it was reported that two-thirds of all chemicals on the American Chemical Society's lists contained at least one benzene ring. [72][73][74] The specific hematologic malignancies that benzene is associated with include: acute myeloid leukemia (AML), aplastic anemia, myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML).[75]. Heat capacities of some organic substances at low temperature, Specific target organ toxicity - repeated exposure - Category 1. ; Badalov, Yu.A., Findenegg, G.H. [all data], Prosen, Gilmont, et al., 1945 The specific heats of certain organic liquids at elevated temperatures, The pathway for the metabolism of benzene is complex and begins in the liver. J. Chem. Specific Heat capacity is given as. (The specific heat of benzene is 1.740 J/g C). Uchebn. Even if it is not a common substrate for metabolism, benzene can be oxidized by both bacteria and eukaryotes. Thermodynam., 1976, 8, 411-423. ; El-Sharkawy, A.A.; Gasser, F.A., Am. Chem. to the boiling point, Studies have shown that genotype at these loci may influence susceptibility to the toxic effects of benzene exposure. Ethylbenzene Formula: C 8 H 10 Molecular weight: 106.1650 IUPAC Standard InChI: InChI=1S/C8H10/c1-2-8-6-4-3-5-7-8/h3-7H,2H2,1H3 IUPAC Standard InChIKey: YNQLUTRBYVCPMQ-UHFFFAOYSA-N CAS Registry Number: 100-41-4 Chemical structure: This structure is also available as a 2d Mol file or as a computed 3d SD file As benzene is ubiquitous in gasoline and hydrocarbon fuels that are in use everywhere, human exposure to benzene is a global health problem. Acta, 1967, 37, 200-208. When gasoline burns, the benzene reacts with oxygen. Chem., 1978, 82, 1282-1290. You can target the Engineering ToolBox by using AdWords Managed Placements. [83] The maximum allowable amount of benzene in workroom air during an 8-hour workday, 40-hour workweek is 1 ppm. The specific heat of a substance is the amount of energy that must be transferred to or from 1 g of that substance to change its temperature by 1. [77] The US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) classifies benzene as a human carcinogen. The new understanding of benzene, and hence of all aromatic compounds, proved to be so important for both pure and applied chemistry that in 1890 the German Chemical Society organized an elaborate appreciation in Kekul's honor, celebrating the twenty-fifth anniversary of his first benzene paper. Surface area of the liquid c. Pressure 6. The catechol is then metabolized to acetyl CoA and succinyl CoA, used by organisms mainly in the citric acid cycle for energy production. It is produced by the oxidation of benzene or n-butane in the presence of vanadium oxide catalysts. [all data], Duff and Everett, 1956 Reddy, K.S., AddThis use cookies for handling links to social media. Contact. [all data], Fortier, Benson, et al., 1976 Fortier, J.-L.; Benson, G.C. 1 C H vap (80. The idea is used in fireworks to produce the colour. Grolier, J.-P.E. *** Very flammable. Water is less resistant to temperature change than ethyl alcohol. As its toxicity became obvious, benzene was supplanted by other solvents, especially toluene (methylbenzene), which has similar physical properties but is not as carcinogenic. [all data], Rajagopal and Subrahmanyam, 1974 [all data], Go To: Top, Condensed phase thermochemistry data, References. Chemical Properties of Ethylbenzene (CAS 100-41-4) InChI InChI=1S/C8H10/c1-2-8-6-4-3-5-7-8/h3-7H,2H2,1H3 InChI Key YNQLUTRBYVCPMQ-UHFFFAOYSA-N Formula C8H10 SMILES CCc1ccccc1 Molecular Weight 1 106.17 CAS 100-41-4 Other Names .alpha.-methyltoluene Aethylbenzol Benzene, ethyl- EB Ethylbenzeen Ethylbenzol Etilbenzene Etylobenzen NCI-C56393 NSC 406903 This discovery led to the production of Sanka. Report I. 14.3 g What is the oxidation number of carbon in C2O4? Under these conditions, aliphatic hydrocarbons form rings and lose hydrogen to become aromatic hydrocarbons. You simply need a household iron to apply heat to loosen the adhesive and weaken the prints to get them out easily. Sci., 1969, 38, 510-511. On this Wikipedia the language links are at the top of the page across from the article title. Am. Keep locked up or in an area accessible only to qualified or authorized persons. Commun., 1979, 44, 3529-3532. J. Kekul's 1872 modification of his 1865 theory, illustrating rapid alternation of double bonds[note 1], In 1845, Charles Blachford Mansfield, working under August Wilhelm von Hofmann, isolated benzene from coal tar. Have high density 4. The limit of the fusion process is the hydrogen-free allotrope of carbon, graphite. Soc., 1926, 48, 1274-1287. Am. Steam cracking is the process for producing ethylene and other alkenes from aliphatic hydrocarbons. The flow rates of the hot and cold stream in the preheaters are equal. Obshchei Khim., 1934, 4, 1027-1033. Table 7.2. Benzene. Vapors may form explosive mixtures with air. Chem., 1977, 81, 925-930. Aoyama, S.; Kanda, E., The specific heat of liquid water is 4.184 J/g C and the specific heat of steam is 1.99 J/g C. H vapof water = 40.8 kJ/mol. Chim., 1960, 8, 651-653. Hazardous Combustion Products Carbon monoxide (CO). It is also used in water treatment chemicals, paper sizing, artificial sweeteners, flavor enhancers, cosmetics, and lubricants. J. Chem. Specific target organ toxicity - single exposure May cause drowsiness and dizziness. von Reis, M.A., Teplofiz. [58][59][60][61] It is likely that this stability contributes to the peculiar molecular and chemical properties known as aromaticity. Excess properties of the mixture bis(2-dichlorethyl)ether (chlorex) + 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (isooctane), The most common reactions of benzene involve substitution of a proton by other groups. [20] In 1836, the French chemist Auguste Laurent named the substance "phne";[21] this word has become the root of the English word "phenol", which is hydroxylated benzene, and "phenyl", the radical formed by abstraction of a hydrogen atom (free radical H) from benzene. uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the for disposal with other flammable, non-chlorinated solvents. [all data], Kurbatov, 1947 The most widely practiced example of this reaction is the ethylation of benzene. Eng. Engineering ToolBox - Resources, Tools and Basic Information for Engineering and Design of Technical Applications! [all data], de Kolossowsky and Udowenko, 1933 [46], The German chemist Wilhelm Krner suggested the prefixes ortho-, meta-, para- to distinguish di-substituted benzene derivatives in 1867; however, he did not use the prefixes to distinguish the relative positions of the substituents on a benzene ring. If gloves are worn, PVA, butyl rubber and viton are suitable materials. [86] These legal limits were based on studies demonstrating compelling evidence of health risk to workers exposed to benzene. *** Very flammable. Depending on the feedstock used to produce the olefins, steam cracking can produce a benzene-rich liquid by-product called pyrolysis gasoline. Faraday Soc., 1971, 67, 2282-2291. Fortier, J.-L.; Benson, G.C., Excess volumes and excess heat capacities of 2,3-dimethylbutane + butane and + toluene, These applications will - due to browser restrictions - send data between your browser and our server. 1st Czech. The specific heat transfer area is 109.46 m 2 per (kg/s) of fresh water and the heat transfer area of the distillate preheater is 200 m 2. Specific gravity: 0.87 Principal hazards *** Benzene is a carcinogen (cancer-causing agent). Add standard and customized parametric components - like flange beams, lumbers, piping, stairs and more - to your Sketchup model with the Engineering ToolBox - SketchUp Extension - enabled for use with the amazing, fun and free SketchUp Make and SketchUp Pro .Add the Engineering ToolBox extension to your SketchUp from the SketchUp Pro Sketchup Extension Warehouse! ; Jost, W., biphenyl (aka diphenyl) at higher temperature: If the raw material stream contains much non-aromatic components (paraffins or naphthenes), those are likely decomposed to lower hydrocarbons such as methane, which increases the consumption of hydrogen. (1867) "Theoretische Betrachtungen und deren Anwendungen zur Systematik der organischen Chemie" (Theoretical considerations and their applications to the classification scheme of organic chemistry). ; Simonov, V.M. Please read Google Privacy & Terms for more information about how you can control adserving and the information collected. Benzene is an organic chemical compound with the molecular formula C6H6. Molecular Formula / Molecular Weight. ; Gilmont, R.; Rossini, F.D., Soc., 1930, 52, 1547-1558. Charles Mansfield filed for (November 11, 1847) and received (May 1848) a patent (no. [all data], Williams and Daniels, 1925 The hydrocarbon derived from benzoic acid thus acquired the name benzin, benzol, or benzene. Sieg, L.; Crtzen, J.L. Pol. The pure material, and any solutions containing it, constitute a fire risk. Benzene itself can be measured in breath, blood or urine, but such testing is usually limited to the first 24 hours post-exposure due to the relatively rapid removal of the chemical by exhalation or biotransformation. Therefore, between the carbon atoms of benzene there were no fixed (i.e., constant) and distinct single or double bonds; instead, the bonds between the carbon atoms were identical. If the sample is heated at constant pressure (P = 1 atm), calculate the amount of energy in kJ needed to raise the temperature of the sample to 102.70 C. Some thermodynamice properties of the systems benzene + ethylene dichloride, benzene + carbon tetrachloride, acetone + chloroform, and acetone + carbon disulphide, The current NIOSH definition for an IDLH condition, as given in the NIOSH Respirator Selection Logic, is one that poses a threat of exposure to airborne contaminants when that exposure is likely to cause death or immediate or delayed permanent adverse health effects or prevent escape from such an environment. and final temperature T f = C = K = F, Q = calories = kcal = x 10^ calories. Excess heat capacities of binary liquid mixtures determined with a Picker flow calorimeter, NBS, 1946, 36, 455-461. Benzene is less dense thanwaterand is slightly soluble inwater. Phys. Excess function of VE,(dVE/dp)T, and CpE of isooctane + benzene and + toluene, I. Unsmoothed experimental datum given as 1.7915 kJ/kg*K.; T = 283.78 to 348.47 K. Cp = 1.3943 - 5.857x10-4T + 5.89x10-6T2 kJ/kg*K. Cp value calculated from equation. [107][108], This article is about the chemical compound. Grolier, J.-P.E. [all data], Grolier, Roux-Desgranges, et al., 1993 Benzene: 0.085: 2.7: 4.0: 1460: Hexane: . As benzene can cause cancer, NIOSH recommends that all workers wear special breathing equipment when they are likely to be exposed to benzene at levels exceeding the recommended (8-hour) exposure limit of 0.1 ppm.[84]. CYP2E1 is involved at multiple steps: converting benzene to oxepin (benzene oxide), phenol to hydroquinone, and hydroquinone to both benzenetriol and catechol. Specific heat of benzenoid hydrocarbons, When plastic water pipes are subject to high heat, the water may be contaminated with benzene.