Estenssoro E, Loudet CI, Ros FG, Kanoore Edul VS, Plotnikow G, Andrian M, Romero I, Piezny D, Bezzi M, Mandich V, Groer C, Torres S, Orlandi C, Rubatto Birri PN, Valenti MF, Cunto E, Senz MG, Tiribelli N, Aphalo V, Reina R, Dubin A; SATI-COVID-19 Study Group. Of all the preventive measures you can take, And it will help ensure that you dont have to live with. This usually happens after the initial (infectious) phase, often in people who have long COVID (post-acute sequelae of SARS CoV-2, or PASC). We're pushing air in. COVID pneumonia is caused when your immune system attacks an infection of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in your lungs. Avoid close contact and sharing items with other people if either of you have COVID-19. That means increasing access to community counseling, emergency health lines, and equipping first responders with the tools they need to provide compassionate care. The records of patients admitted to ICU were collected and data included demography, symptoms, comorbidites and vital parameters. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the most common diagnosis for severe COVID-19 is severe pneumonia. Theyll listen to your lungs with a stethoscope and take your blood pressure, temperature and oxygen level. Higher survival rate was observed in patients younger than 55 years old (p = 0.003) with the highest mortality rate observed in those patients older than 75 years (p = If at any time you start to feel worse or have new symptoms, call your provider right away. In addition to getting vaccinated, you can help reduce your risk of getting severe COVID-19 with some healthy habits: Theres no standard timeline for how long COVID pneumonia lasts. Epub 2020 May 11. Or you may have heard that the virus is just like. may feel pain or discomfort when we have to turn or reposition them in their bed. Manage your symptoms with medications and other treatments as recommended by your healthcare provider. More:One in three COVID-19 survivors diagnosed with brain or mental health disorder within 6 months of infection, study finds. We'vealsoseen rectal catheters with ulcers. Youmayreceivethiscare at a nursing home, at a rehabilitationfacility or from in-homecare services. WebHow covid 19 affect enterocytes and lead to diarrhea clinical gastroenterology and hepatology narrative reviews fasiha kanwal, section editor diarrhea during A popular tweet this week, however, used the survival statistic without key context. I've had people come off of the ventilator and tell me that they thought we were hurting. Results: Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. Keywords: The ventilator settings associated a tidal volume of 6 mL kg 1 of predicted body weight, the positive end expiratory pressure level was selected to maintain the end-inspiratory plateau pressure above 28 cmH 2 O. Evenif youre only intubated for a week,you'restillgoing to struggle to stand up and walk. But this day, it came after hearing the news we have all heard too often: Someone I know is sick. Epub 2022 Oct 31. Mean age was 57.75 13.96 Through that breathing tube, weattachthem to a ventilator. Crit. With each day, the spiraling death toll left me with what I now know is survivors guilt. Crit. MeSH Mortality rate at 30 days was 56.60%. Unfortunately,this disease process makes it so people die by themselves. WebAbstract. The elderly and patients with severe underlying diseases have a higher rate of severe illness and fatality after infection than the general population, and such rates can be reduced after vaccination. Risk Factors Associated With Mortality Among Patients With COVID-19 in Intensive Care Units in Lombardy, Italy. ACE2, COVID-19 Infection, Inflammation, and Coagulopathy: Missing Pieces in the Puzzle. Respir Res. At age 53 with Type 2 diabetes and a few extra pounds, my chance of survival was far less than Data existed on ferritin levels upon admission in 380 non-intubated patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. Identifier: NCT04379258. FOIA "We think that mortality for folks that end up on the ventilator with [COVID-19] is going to end up being somewhere between probably 25% up to maybe 50%," Cooke About 5% of patients infected with SARS CoV-2 have a critical form with organ failure. Key Points. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has profoundly affected the US healthcare system. [CrossRef] et al. Pneumonia is a condition in your lungs you can get when you have COVID-19. Based onscientific studies,the longer you're onaventilator(especially formultiple weeks),theloweryourchance of a good outcome. Any news of the pandemic could easily trigger me. In early October I was on a ventilator with COVID-related pneumonia. Ventilator duration for COVID-19 According to a 2020 study, the typical duration for mechanical ventilation for patients with severe COVID-19 symptoms is around 8 to 10 days Trusted Source . The virus then uses your immune system to start spreading out into other parts of your lung over time. They can't grip or squeezethingsbecause they're so weak. Last medically reviewed on March 15, 2021. 2020 Oct 1;180(10):1345-1355. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.3539. I've had people come off of the ventilator and tell me that they thought we were hurtingor attackingthem. It was then I discovered our country is woefully unprepared for the mental health pandemic we are facing. One of the most common complications of using a mechanical ventilator is pneumonia, since the breathing tube allows bacteria and viruses to easily reach your lungs. Case characteristics, resource use, and outcomes of 10021 patients with COVID-19 admitted to 920 German hospitals: an observational study. showing a lower patient survival rate among those hospitalized Nez, J.; Badimn, J.J.; et al. Anaesth. Or you may have heard that the virus is just likea coldthatyoullget overeasily. Click here to learn more about Yales research efforts and response to COVID-19. COVID pneumonia is an infection in your lungs caused by SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. Where we succeeded, where we didn't, and what we learned. For example, we've seen,penileinjury from Foley catheters. Based on a 2021 analysis of data from the US National COVID Cohort Collaborative, 20.2% of adults hospitalized for COVID-19 experienced a severe clinical course involving either invasive ventilatory support, extracorporeal Finish all medications and therapies as prescribed by your provider. In general, the longer youre on a ventilator, the slower the weaning process. The PubMed wordmark and PubMed logo are registered trademarks of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). 2020;8:853862. If youre on a ventilator to help you breathe while youre sick with COVID-19, youre at higher risk for ventilator-associated pneumonia. A 2-year retrospective cohort study of hospitalized adult patients with COVID-19 pneumonia was conducted at a private tertiary care center. Families can see the deteriorationvirtually,noticing that thepatientlooksolderand frailerwith time. WebIntroduction: The use of mechanical ventilation associated with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure, the most common complication in critically ill COVID-19 patients, defines a high risk population that requires specific consideration of outcomes and treatment practices.Areas covered: This review evaluates existing information about mortality rates and As your immune system attacks the infection in your lungs, they get inflamed and fill with fluid, making it hard to breathe. If you have shortness of breath and its getting worse, or if you feel like you cant get air, go the nearest ER. When theres a surge and hospitals are overwhelmed, deaths from COVID pneumonia (mortality) can double. How does intubation affect your ability to move around and care for yourself? Once youve been released from the hospital, there are a few things you can do at home to continue your recovery: As you begin to recover from COVID pneumonia, you shouldnt struggle to breathe anymore. Your familyis unableto be with youand provide support. Accessibility Introduction. Katkin:Patients often feel veryuncomfortable. Infect Drug Resist. JAMA. If you arent able to breathe on your own without the ventilator, your healthcare provider will reattach it and youll try again at a future time. You're going to need a specialized therapy team to help you recover. Keywords: Ann Intensive Care. Introduction. and transmitted securely. 2023 Feb 13;5(2):e0863. National Library of Medicine COVID-19; mortality; pneumonia; remdesivir. "We still have a lot to learn about COVID-19, particularly about the havoc it can wreak on the lungs and the pneumonia it causes, which is often now called COVID pneumonia," says Dr. Rayman Lee, pulmonologist at Houston Methodist. PMC In: Loscalzo J, Fauci A, Kasper D, Hauser S, Longo D, Jameson J. eds. Improving the early identification of COVID-19 pneumonia: a narrative review. The researchers estimate that the death rate could be anywhere from 43 to 64 percent. for useful, credible and reliable information. I lost more than 30 pounds in less than two weeks; mostly muscle weight. But that recovery came at a cost. Multiple-site decontamination regimen decreases acquired infection incidence in mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients. Numerous studies have advanced our understanding of Katkin:Weuse FaceTime to connectpatientswith their loved ones andfamily members,sincethey'reunabletobe with them in person. 2022, 41, 100987. tell us that they feel like they're not the same person they were before they got sick. Rationale: Initial reports of case fatality rates (CFRs) among adults with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) receiving invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) are highly variable.Objectives: To examine the CFR of patients with COVID-19 receiving IMV.Methods: Two authors independently searched PubMed, Embase, medRxiv, bioRxiv, the COVID-19 Citation 3 Severe respiratory tract infection that All rights reserved. In the case of COVID pneumonia, the damage to the lungs is caused by the coronavirus that causes COVID-19. Researchers are continuing to figure out the best time to start and end ventilator treatment in people with severe COVID-19. One would think hearing stories of people who have died would remind me of how lucky I am. Overall survival at 180 days. their breathing while they're undergoing an operation or any kind of recovery. The truth is that86% of adult COVID-19patientsareages18-64, so its affectingmanyin our community.,,, How the Aging Process Makes Older People More Vulnerable to COVID-19. Mean age was 57.75 13.96 years. During COVID pneumonia recovery, your body first has to repair the damage caused to the lungs; then it has to deal with clearing leftover fluid and debris and, finally, scarring until the tissue is fully healed over all of which come with unpleasant symptoms. At age 53 with Type 2 diabetes and a few extra pounds, my chance of survival was far less than 50 percent. 8600 Rockville Pike COVID-19 has ushered in a mental and emotional health crisis, especially in minority communities like the one I live in and represent. COVID pneumonia spreads across your lungs slowly, using your own immune system to spread, which means it tends to last longer and cause damage in more places. But, in more severe cases, COVID-19 can also cause serious complications, including pneumonia. Innate and Adaptive Immunity during SARS-CoV-2 Infection: Biomolecular Cellular Markers and Mechanisms. -. Of these patients, 142 (37.4 percent) had received the corticosteroid methylprednisolone to reduce lung inflammation and Pneumonia acquired in the intensive care unit (ICU) is a common infection in critically ill patients. The resulting fluid and debris build-up makes it hard for a person to breathe sometimes to such an extent that oxygen therapy or ventilator support is required. (, ( Introduction: My wifes soothing voice was one of the first things I heard when I came out of a medically induced coma. The site is secure. Its also one of the first things I hear when I find myself slipping into what I call my dark place., Youre OK, my wife assures me. Houston Methodist, Houston, TX. Antibiotics 2021, 10, 988. 2020 Oct 28;21(1):897. doi: 10.1186/s13063-020-04819-9. The goal of this research was to explore the associations of serum IL-27 with the severity and prognosis among CAP After months of trying to help myself, of hearing my wifes voice telling me I am OK but not quite believing her, I realized I needed professional help. WebHow many people with COVID-19 will get pneumonia? How serious is being put on a ventilator? Hospital-Acquired Infections in Critically Ill Patients with COVID-19. The virus that causes COVID-19 is contagious it can spread from person to person when youre infected and you cough, sneeze, talk or even breathe near someone else. 2021 Sep;9(9):989-998. doi: 10.1016/S2213-2600(21)00229-0. And I do feel incredibly blessed in surviving. Before After the bonfires burn for a while, their embers drift into other areas, causing new fires and spreading the damage in a slow burn. Learn more about the vaccine and where to schedule your vaccination. et al. eCollection 2023. JAMA. showing a lower patient survival rate among those hospitalized Nez, J.; Badimn, J.J.; et al. My friend and I were in conversation masked and distanced the day before the announcement. Safety and Efficacy of Imatinib for Hospitalized Adults with COVID-19: A structured summary of a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. The COVID-19 pandemic is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2), an emerging coronavirus, which has already infected 192 million people with a case fatality rate close to 2%. Different variants of coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a virus responsible for severe acute respiratory syndrome, caused several epidemic surges in Hungary. Accessibility These severe COVID-19 patients are divided into the case (dead) and control (discharged) groups based on their outcome status. I pray America can meet this challenge better than it met the pandemic. If you're recovering from COVID-19 and aren't yet vaccinated. Indeed, the major mechanism for injury and death in COVID-19 relates to hypoxia ( 6 ). For moderate illness, you may feel better in three to six weeks. That being said, there's still plenty that experts like Dr. Lee do know about COVID pneumonia, including about how long it can take to fully recover from it. A ventilator can help save the lives of some people with COVID-19 by supporting their lungs until their bodies can fight off the virus. Bethesda, MD 20894, Web Policies The virus can cause a lot of damage over time, so dont hesitate to call your healthcare provider or go to the ER if your symptoms worsen. During the first wave of COVID-19, about 75 percent of people admitted to critical care units were placed on a mechanical ventilator. Grey lines represent the 95%, Multivariable-adjusted risk model for death, Multivariable-adjusted risk model for death at 180 days and forest plot, MeSH Lost. The ventilator settings associated a tidal volume of 6 mL kg 1 of predicted body weight, the positive end expiratory pressure level was selected to maintain the end-inspiratory plateau pressure above 28 cmH 2 O. If you have any COVID-19 symptoms such as loss of your sense of taste or smell, sore throat, fever, cough or shortness of breath, get tested for COVID-19. Get treated for other health conditions you have, as they can put you at higher risk for severe COVID-19. COVID-19: People with Certain Medical Conditions. How long do people with COVID-19 stay on a ventilator? The PubMed wordmark and PubMed logo are registered trademarks of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). Get useful, helpful and relevant health + wellness information. You can think of a COVID-19 infection in stages of severity: As long as hospitals arent overwhelmed, the survival rate for COVID pneumonia is about 80%. 2022 Dec 5;4(12):e0799. Anaesth. This makes the small sacs in your lungs (alveoli) swell and leak fluids. Registered 10 April 2020 (retrospectively registered). JAMA. For the 5% who develop severe or critical illness, recovery can take much longer. And it will help ensure that you dont have to live withregret. For the 15% of infected individuals who develop moderate to severe COVID-19 and are admitted to the hospital for a few days and require oxygen, the average recovery time ranges between three to six weeks. A ventilator has the lifesaving task of supporting the lungs. Moreno G, Carbonell R, Martin-Loeches I, Sol-Violn J, Correig I Fraga E, Gmez J, Ruiz-Botella M, Trefler S, Bod M, Murcia Paya J, Daz E, Vidal-Cortes P, Papiol E, Albaya Moreno A, Sancho Chinesta S, Socias Crespi L, Lorente MDC, Loza Vzquez A, Vara Arlanzon R, Recio MT, Ballesteros JC, Ferrer R, Fernandez Rey E, Restrepo MI, Estella , Margarit Ribas A, Guasch N, Reyes LF, Marn-Corral J, Rodrguez A; COVID-19 SEMICYUC Working Group. Mandell LA, Niederman MS. They have told usthat it feels liketheirbodyison fire. document.write(new Date().getFullYear()); | Atrium Health | Terms Of Use | Notice of Non Discrimination & Accessibility, If youre young and healthy, you may not be concerned about the, risks. 2020;323:20522059. Explore lung, breathing and allergy disorders, treatments, tests and prevention services provided by the Cleveland Clinic Respiratory Institute. 2.3 Susceptible population. Introduction. You can't go to the bathroom. COVID-19 virus, a single-chain enveloped RNA virus, Citation 1 causes multisystemic infections in animals and humans, mainly leads to respiratory tract infection. These machines can provide air with an elevated oxygen content and create pressure in your lungs to assist with breathing. If youre diagnosed with COVID pneumonia, its likely that youll be admitted to the hospital. Your healthcare provider should be able to reduce the number of machines that help you breathe or give you oxygen if your condition is improving. We aimed to estimate 180-day mortality of patients with COVID-19 requiring invasive ventilation, and to develop a predictive model for long-term mortality. Crit. The authors main objetive was to compare Silvia Fonseca on LinkedIn: Early observations suggested that COVID-19 pneumonia had a higher Anaesth. doi: 10.1097/CCE.0000000000000799. COVID-19 disease: invasive ventilation. Liang C, Tian L, Liu Y, Hui N, Qiao G, Li H, Shi Z, Tang Y, Zhang D, Xie X, Zhao X. Eur J Med Chem. Some hospitals are running into ventilator shortages so researchers are looking at whether anti-inflammatory drugs may be an effective alternative treatment in some cases. Generally, youll be given a sedative. We want them to feel like the person they were before they got sick. The current survival rate of people needing to use a ventilator varies widely between studies. Madrid (0010604)/Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Wang D, Hu B, Hu C, et al. Contact your healthcare provider if youre at risk for severe COVID-19 or if you have questions about managing your symptoms. How do respiratory therapists maintain the patients airway during intubation? We aimed to estimate 180-day mortality of patients with COVID-19 requiring invasive ventilation, and to develop a predictive model for long-term mortality. They also help clear away carbon dioxide and rebalance your bloods pH levels. Age and Comorbidities Predict COVID-19 Outcome, Regardless of Innate Immune Response Severity: A Single Institutional Cohort Study. It causes fluid and inflammation in your lungs. Make sure you keep a close eye on your symptoms especially if youre over the age of 65 or have an ongoing medical condition that puts you at risk for severe illness with COVID-19. Infection or vaccination can acquire certain immunity. COVID-19 is a respiratory illness caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2. You can't bathe yourself. Recent data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention found that over 15% of norovirus tests are coming back positive. Our experts continually monitor the health and wellness space, and we update our articles when new information becomes available. National Library of Medicine Getting vaccinated against them reduces your risk of getting sick to begin with and reduces your risk of serious illness, like COVID pneumonia, if you do get sick. In more severe cases, the damage can last a long time. A friend and colleague tested positive despite being fully vaccinated. 4,012 confirmed cases of COVID-19 were admitted to hospital, of which 560 (13.95%) with severe pneumonia were included in the study. Policy. While some associations with age, male sex, high body mass (, Visitation, mask requirements and COVID-19 information, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Our website services, content, and products are for informational purposes only. Continue to monitor your symptoms. A total of 400 patients were enrolled between May 19, 2020, and May 18, 2021, and final follow-up was completed in July 2021. Getting vaccinated against COVID-19 and other causes of pneumonia plus a few simple habits are the best ways to reduce your risk. Its important to go to the ER if you have symptoms of COVID pneumonia, as it can get worse quickly. Carter C, et al. But so many others, especially those in communities of color and low-wage frontline workers, are not as lucky. The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the Ohl ME, Miller DR, Lund BC, Kobayashi T, Richardson Miell K, Beck BF, Alexander B, Crothers K, Vaughan Sarrazin MS. JAMA Netw Open. But sometimes I go to the dark place. Care Pain Med. WebResults: 4,012 confirmed cases of COVID-19 were admitted to hospital, of which 560 (13.95%) with severe pneumonia were included in the study. Brown B, Ojha V, Fricke I, Al-Sheboul SA, Imarogbe C, Gravier T, Green M, Peterson L, Koutsaroff IP, Demir A, Andrieu J, Leow CY, Leow CH. Health experts provide answers to frequently asked questions about the bird flu outbreak and the danger it poses to humans. A predictive model was developed to estimate the probability of 180-day mortality. There are hundreds of types of coronaviruses, but only seven are known to affect humans. Right after coming out of intubation, patients often canthold their head up. The novel coronavirus pandemic has caused significant mortality throughout the world. All rights reserved. The symptoms of COVID pneumonia can be similar to those of an initial COVID-19 infection. Itsthe emotion that Ive seenthe mostinpatients, community members, staffand others. Cline:Alot of nurses in the ICU tell us that the hardest part of their job is staying with patientswhile they die. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. government site. Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. We do not endorse non-Cleveland Clinic products or services. It left me weak; unable to walk. Mortality Associated with Cardiovascular Disease in Patients with COVID-19. government site. All pneumonias cause inflammation and fluid in your lungs. Disclaimer. It may only be a few hours, or it could be as much as 2 or 3 weeks, or even longer. You're going to need a specialized therapy team to help you recover. HIGHLIGHTS who: Yoshihiko Takahashi and colleagues from the Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan, Department of Emergency and Critical Care have published the Article: Effect of a systematic lung-protective protocol for COVID-19 pneumonia requiring invasive ventilation: A single center retrospective study, in the It's the drugs that help treat the cancer thatmakeyour hair fall out and your bodyfeelweak. With your support, Houston Methodist provides exceptional research, education and care that is truly leading medicine. Months later, patients can still struggle with breathing, muscle weakness, fatigue, foggythinkingand nerve pain. Healthline Media does not provide medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. regain their strength and movement. In a single-center, retrospective, observational study, we aimed to assess and compare morbidities and The research team identified 719 COVID-19 and 1127 non-COVID-19 patients with pneumonia who required mechanical ventilation. Seeking treatment as soon as possible increases your chance of survival and a quicker recovery. Alamer A, Asdaq SMB, AlYamani M, AlGhadeer H, Alnasser ZH, Aljassim Z, Albattat M, Alhajji A, Alrashed A, Mozari Y, Aledrees A, Almuhainy B, Abraham I, Alamer A. Ann Saudi Med. In patients 80 years old with asystole or PEA on mechanical ventilation, the overall rate of survival was 6%, and survival with CPC of 1 or 2 was 3.7%. You're basically lying there with all of these machines keeping you alive,and you're all alone. -. In some cases, patients will have lingering symptoms after the initial COVID-19 infection, often called post-COVID syndrome. Crit Care Explor. There are vaccines for both COVID-19 and other causes of pneumonia that you could get infected with at the same time as COVID-19. FOIA Cline:Patients may beso weakfrom intubationthatthey starthavingnerve pain. The hardest part,as a therapist,is trying to help these patientsregain their strength and movement. Candidemia Results: But although ventilators save lives, a sobering reality has emerged during the COVID-19 pandemic: many intubated patients do not survive, and recent research 39.7% and 47.6%) compared to the patients admitted with a bacterial or other viral pneumonia in both time periods (all p values <0.001, see Table 2, Figure 1 and S1 ). 2021 Nov 26;11(1):159. doi: 10.1186/s13613-021-00951-0. Theyre often used in the intensive care units (ICUs) of hospitals to help people with severe COVID-19 symptoms. Up to 60 percent of people with COVID-19 will need to go back on a ventilator 24 to 48 hours after weaning. 2021 May;106:71-77. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2021.02.092. In the figure, weeks with suppressed To help, who work at Atrium Health Carolinas Medical Center, Jaspal Singh, MD, MHA, MHS, FCCP, FCCM, FAASM. Like other respiratory infections that cause pneumonia, COVID-19 can cause short-term lung damage. They arent a cure for COVID-19, but they can support your body while it fights off the infection. Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in COVID-19 Patients: A Retrospective Cohort Study. Presenting characteristics, comorbidities, and outcomes among 5700 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in the New York City area. -, Grasselli G, Zangrillo A, Zanella A, et al. But research suggests that the SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes COVID pneumonia moves differently through your lungs than other viruses and bacteria that cause pneumonia. Bilateral interstitial pneumonia in COVID-19 is lung damage on both sides as a result of COVID-19-related pneumonia. It's the drugs that help treat the cancer that. sharing sensitive information, make sure youre on a federal (2020). I dont Doctors said she wouldnt survive COVID:After 25 days on a ventilator, shes renewing her wedding vows, Lorenzo Sierra is a member of the Arizona House of Representatives, Legislative District 19. PMC The type of pneumonia associated with COVID-19 is almost always in both lungs at the same time (bilateral). Worldwide, that means more than 77 million people to date have had severe cases of COVID-19. Grasselli G, Greco M, Zanella A, Albano G, Antonelli M, Bellani G, Bonanomi E, Cabrini L, Carlesso E, Castelli G, Cattaneo S, Cereda D, Colombo S, Coluccello A, Crescini G, Forastieri Molinari A, Foti G, Fumagalli R, Iotti GA, Langer T, Latronico N, Lorini FL, Mojoli F, Natalini G, Pessina CM, Ranieri VM, Rech R, Scudeller L, Rosano A, Storti E, Thompson BT, Tirani M, Villani PG, Pesenti A, Cecconi M; COVID-19 Lombardy ICU Network. Would you like email updates of new search results? Published. A promising antiviral candidate drug for the COVID-19 pandemic: A mini-review of remdesivir. The COVID-19 pandemic was unprecedented.